The 2019–20 Iranian protests (Persian: اعتراضات سراسری ۱۳۹۸ ایران) are a series of civil protests occurring nationwide across Iran, initially caused by a 50%–200% (approximately 6.5–19.5 cents US) increase in fuel prices, calling for the overthrow of the government in Iran and Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei. The protests commenced in the evening of 15 November and within hours spread to 21 cities as videos of the protest began to circulate online. Images of the violent protests were shared on the internet with protests reaching international levels.
Although the protests began as peaceful gatherings, they soon turned into violent riots and revolt against the Iranian government. The Iranian government-employed tactics to shut down the protests including a nationwide internet shutdown and, according to Amnesty international, shooting protesters dead from rooftops, helicopters, and at close range with machine gun fire. According to the residents, as reported by the New York Times, the government forces then proceeded to confiscate the bodies of the dead protesters and truck them away to mask the true casualty count and scale of the protests. Amnesty International wrote that the families of murdered protesters were threatened by the government from speaking to the media or holding funerals. The government killed 1,500 Iranian citizens and tortures jailed protesters. The government crackdown prompted a violent reaction from protesters who destroyed 731 government banks including Iran's central bank, nine Islamic religious centres, tore down anti-American billboards, and posters and statues of the Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei as well as former leader Khomeini. 50 government military bases were also attacked by protesters. This series of protests have been categorized as the most violent and severe since the rise of Iran's Islamic Republic in 1979.
In order to block the sharing of information regarding the protests and the deaths of hundreds of protesters on social media platforms, the government blocked the Internet nationwide, resulting in a near-total internet blackout of around six days.[31c.